Skalpowanie

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Skalpowanie procesora Intel Haswell. Poradnik wykonania i testy

Skalpowanie procesora Intel Haswell. Poradnik wykonania i testy – SPIS TREŚCI

Zwykłemu użytkownikowi komputera skalpowanie kojarzy się raczej z północnoamerykańskimi Indianami i okrutnym zwyczajem poniżania pokonanych przeciwników, aniżeli zaawansowaną elektroniką, co musi wzbudzać uzasadnione obawy w przypadku próby dokonania tego zabiegu na procesorze. Intel postanowił wskrzesić duchy przeszłości przy okazji prezentacji rodziny Ivy Bridge, która oprócz szeregu nowych technologii, wprowadziła też jedną niezbyt pożądaną zmianę konstrukcyjną. Producent zrezygnował z lutowanego połączenia rdzenia procesora z miedzianym rozpraszaczem ciepła IHS (ang. Integrated Heat Spreader) na korzyść pasty termoprzewodzącej. Szybko okazało się, że przewodność cieplna takiego rozwiązania jest dużo słabsza, niż stosowana wcześniej mieszanka indu i cyny. Nawet wydajne coolery nie potrafiły schłodzić mocno podkręconych CPU. Sytuacja wyglądała jeszcze gorzej w przypadku Haswella, który cierpiał z powodu zbyt wysokich temperatury. aż sprytni użytkownicy zdiagnozowali i wyeliminowali przyczynę problemu.

Autor: Maciej Wawrzynowski

Budowa procesorów Intela od dłuższego czasu wygląda w zasadzie identycznie (nie mylić z architekturą!), mamy zatem zieloną płytkę drukowaną, którą od spodu wyposażono w ponad tysiąc drobnych styków. W przypadku podstawek LGA są to pozłacane miejsca, których dotykają druciki socketu płyty głównej. Odmiennie jest z kolei w gniazdach typu PGA (korzysta z nich AMD), gdzie procesor posiada nóżki wchodzące w zaczepy w sockecie. Po przeciwnej stronie znajduje się krzemowy rdzeń, obok którego mogą występować różne malutkie elementy, rezystory itp. (Haswell takowe posiada, podczas gdy Ivy Bridge nie). Następnie mamy grubą, miedzianą płytkę IHS pokrytą warstwą niklu. Płytka ta spełnia kilka bardzo ważnych funkcji. Po pierwsze ułatwia rozpraszanie ciepła wytwarzanego przez procesor i zwiększa powierzchnię jego oddawania. Po drugie chroni kruchy rdzeń przed uszkodzeniami mechanicznymi. Ostatnim zadaniem jest rozprowadzenie nacisku koszyka socketu po całym PCB, aby wszystkie piny były równomiernie dociśnięte.

Jeszcze do niedawna połączenie procesora z IHS było lutowane, co zapewniało dużą przewodność cieplną. Od generacji Ivy Bridge lut został zamieniony na pastę termoprzewodzącą, a użytkownicy zaczęli się skarżyć na przegrzewanie swoich procesorów (zwłaszcza po podkręceniu). Jednocześnie pozbawione tego mankamentu są procesory z segmentu HEDT, przeznaczone na podstawki LGA 2020 (Ivy Bridge-E) i LGA 2020-3 (Hasswell-E).W tych seriach nadal występuje połączenie lutowane. Skalpowanie procesora (ang. delidding) jest operacją polegającą na rozdzieleniu IHS procesora z samym PCB oraz rdzeniem. Skalpowanie lutowanych procesorów jest bardzo trudne i niebezpieczne, ponieważ stop lutowniczy zaczyna topić się dopiero przy

120°C, więc próba rozdzielenia elementów poniżej tej temperatury skończy się rozerwaniem rdzenia. Na szerszą skalę (choć nadal mówimy tutaj raczej o mikroskali) procesory zaczęto skalpować właśnie od generacji Ivy Bridge, gdy okazało się, że wymiana pasty termoprzewodzącej i usunięcie czarnego spoiwa IHS znacząco poprawia temperatury pracy.

Tyle tytułem wstępu, przejdźmy teraz do części warsztatowych :) Jak widzicie na powyższym zdjęciu, IHS procesora przyklejony jest jedynie po obwodzie za pomocą czarnego kleju/sylikonu. Rdzeń posmarowany jest pastą termoprzewodzącą, która poza swoją lepkością nie trzyma w żaden sposób procesora. Naszym zadaniem będzie oddzielenie blachy IHS od zielonego laminatu z rdzeniem, oczywiście bez uszkodzenia krzemowego serca oraz znajdujących się po lewej stronie rezystorów. Ich naruszenie w najlepszym razie skutkuje brakiem obsługi dual channel, w najgorszym zaś kompletnym uśmierconym procesorem. W niniejszym artykule opiszemy dwie najpopularniejsze w internecie metody skalpowania. Pierwszą z nich będzie manewr z żyletką, drugą mniej znana lecz również skuteczna opcja z imadłem. Potem porównamy temperatury procesora oskalpowanego z fabrycznym, jak również Devil’s Canyon reprezentowany przez Core i7-4790K. Tak czy inaczej, nudno nie będzie :)

Scalping: Small Quick Profits Can Add Up

Scalping is a trading style that specializes in profiting off small price changes, generally after a trade is executed and becomes profitable. It requires a trader to have a strict exit strategy because one large loss could eliminate the many small gains the trader worked to obtain. Having the right tools such as a live feed, a direct-access broker and the stamina to place many trades is required for this strategy to be successful.

Read on to find out more about this strategy, the different types of scalping and for tips about how to use this style of trading.

How Scalping Works

Scalping is based on an assumption that most stocks will complete the first stage of a movement. But where it goes from there is uncertain. After that initial stage, some stocks cease to advance while others continue.

A scalper intends to take as many small profits as possible, without letting them evaporate. This is the opposite of the „let your profits run” mindset, which attempts to optimize positive trading results by increasing the size of winning trades while letting others reverse. Scalping achieves results by increasing the number of winners and sacrificing the size of the wins. It’s not uncommon for a trader with a longer time frame to achieve positive results by winning only half or even less of his or her trades – it’s just that the wins are much bigger than the losses. A successful scalper, however, will have a much higher ratio of winning trades versus losing ones, while keeping profits roughly equal or slightly bigger than losses.

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Scalping: Small Quick Profits Can Add Up

The main premises of scalping are:

  • Lessened exposure limits risk: A brief exposure to the market diminishes the probability of running into an adverse event.
  • Smaller moves are easier to obtain: A bigger imbalance of supply and demand is needed to warrant bigger price changes. For example, it is easier for a stock to make a 10 cent move than it is to make a $1 move.
  • Smaller moves are more frequent than larger ones: Even during relatively quiet markets, there are many small movements a scalper can exploit.

Scalping can be adopted as a primary or supplementary style of trading.

Spreads in Scalping vs. Normal Trading Strategy

When scalpers trade, they want to profit off the changes in a security’s bid-ask spread. That’s the difference between the price a broker will buy a security from a scalper (the bid) and the price the broker will sell it (the ask) to the scalper. So, the scalper is looking for a narrower spread.

But in normal circumstances, trading is fairly consistent and can allow for steady profits. That’s because the spread between the bid and ask is also steady, as supply and demand for securities is balanced.

Scalping as a Primary Style

A pure scalper will make a number of trades each day — perhaps in the hundreds. A scalper will mostly utilize tick, or one-minute charts since the time frame is small, and he or she needs to see the setups as they shape up in as close to real-time as possible. Supporting systems such as Direct Access Trading (DAT) and Level 2 quotations are essential for this type of trading. Automatic instant execution of orders is crucial to a scalper, so a direct-access broker is the preferred weapon of choice.

Scalping as a Supplementary Style

Traders with longer time frames can use scalping as a supplementary approach. The most obvious way is to use it when the market is choppy or locked in a narrow range. When there are no trends in a longer time frame, going to a shorter time frame can reveal visible and exploitable trends, which can lead a trader to scalp.

Another way to add scalping to longer time-frame trades is through the so-called „umbrella” concept. This approach allows a trader to improve his or her cost basis and maximize a profit. Umbrella trades are done in the following way:

  • A trader initiates a position for a longer time-frame trade.
  • While the main trade develops, a trader identifies new setups in a shorter time frame in the direction of the main trade, entering and exiting them by the principles of scalping.

Based on particular setups, any trading system can be used for the purposes of scalping. In this regard, scalping can be seen as a kind of risk management method. Basically, any trade can be turned into a scalp by taking a profit near the 1:1 risk/reward ratio. This means that the size of the profit taken equals the size of a stop dictated by the setup. If, for instance, a trader enters his or her position for a scalp trade at $20 with an initial stop at $19.90, the risk is 10 cents. This means a 1:1 risk/reward ratio will be reached at $20.10.

Scalp trades can be executed on both long and short sides. They can be done on breakouts or in range-bound trading. Many traditional chart formations, such as cups and handles or triangles, can be used for scalping. The same can be said about technical indicators if a trader bases decisions on them.

Three Types of Scalping

The first type of scalping is referred to as „market-making,” whereby a scalper tries to capitalize on the spread by simultaneously posting a bid and an offer for a specific stock. Obviously, this strategy can succeed only on mostly immobile stocks that trade big volumes without any real price changes. This kind of scalping is immensely hard to do successfully, as a trader must compete with market makers for the shares on both bids and offers. Also, the profit is so small that any stock movement against the trader’s position warrants a loss exceeding his or her original profit target.

The other two styles are based on a more traditional approach and require a moving stock where prices change rapidly. These two styles also require a sound strategy and method of reading the movement.

The second type of scalping is done by purchasing a large number of shares that are sold for a gain on a very small price movement. A trader of this style will enter into positions for several thousand shares and wait for a small move, which is usually measured in cents. Such an approach requires highly liquid stock to allow for entering and exiting 3,000 to 10,000 shares easily.

The third type of scalping is considered to be closer to the traditional methods of trading. A trader enters an amount of shares on any setup or signal from his or her system and closes the position as soon as the first exit signal is generated near the 1:1 risk/reward ratio, calculated as described earlier.

Tips for Novice Scalpers

With low barriers to entry in the trading world, the number of people trying their hands at day trading and other strategies such as scalping has increased. Newcomers to scalping need to make sure the trading style suits their personality because it requires a disciplined approach. Traders need to make quick decisions, spot opportunities and constantly monitor the screen. Those who are impatient and feel gratified by picking small successful trades are perfect for scalping.

That said, scalping is not the best trading strategy for rookies, as it involves fast decision-making, constant monitoring of positions and frequent turnover. Still, there are a few tips that can help novice scalpers.

  • Order execution: A novice needs to master the art of efficient order execution. A delayed or bad order can wipe out what little profit was earned and even result in a loss. Since the profit margin per trade is limited, the order execution has to be accurate. As mentioned above, this requires supporting systems such as Direct Access Trading and Level 2 quotations.
  • Frequency and costs: A novice scalper has to make sure to keep costs in mind while making trades. Scalping involves numerous trades — as many as hundreds during a trading session. Frequent buying and selling are bound to be costly in terms of commissions, which can shrink the profit. This makes it crucial to choose the right online broker. The broker should not only provide requisites like direct access to markets, but also competitive commissions. And remember, not all brokers allow scalping.
  • Trading: Spotting the trend and momentum comes in handy for a scalper who can even enter and exit briefly to repeat a pattern. A novice needs to understand the market pulse, and once the scalper has identified that, trend trading and momentum trading can help achieve more profitable trades. Another strategy used by scalpers is a countertrend. But beginners should avoid using this strategy and stick to trading with the trend.
  • Trading sides: Beginners are usually more comfortable with trading on the buy-side and should stick to it before they gain sufficient confidence and expertise to handle the short side. However, scalpers must eventually balance long and short trades for the best results.
  • Technical analysis: Novices should equip themselves with the basics of technical analysis to combat increasing competition in the intra-day world. This is especially relevant in today’s markets dominated by high-frequency trading, as well as the increasing use of dark pools.
  • Volume: As a technique, scalping requires frequent entry and exit decisions within a short time frame. Such a strategy can only be successfully implemented when orders can be filled, and this depends on liquidity levels. High-volume trades offer much-needed liquidity.
  • Discipline: As a rule, it is best to close all positions during a day’s trading session and not carry them over to the next day. Scalping is based on small opportunities that exist in the market, and a scalper should not deviate from the basic principle of holding a position for a short time period.

The Bottom Line

Scalping can be very profitable for traders who decide to use it as a primary strategy, or even those who use it to supplement other types of trading. Adhering to the strict exit strategy is the key to making small profits compound into large gains. The brief amount of market exposure and the frequency of small moves are key attributes that are the reasons why this strategy is popular among many types of traders.

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